Today, on June 20, in “Vistamedi” office, nurse-phlebotomist Tamar Grigalashvili did a presentation on the topic: “Blood Vessels”.
The presentation was attended by “Vistamedi” phlebotomists, as well as by our clinical laboratory specialists and administrative workers. The meeting was very informative and led to higly interactive discussions. We would like to thank Tamar for an interesting presentation!
Call for application is open for Vistamedi’s short training course: “Introduction to Practical Laboratory Medicine”. The training is free!
The candidates will be selected on the basis of:
1) Their CV
Upon successful completion of the course and learning objectives, the applicants will be awarded with a certificate.
Send your CV to our email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
What this test is used for?
The glucose tolerance test checks how quickly and effectively does the body process glucose. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. The body gets glucose from food. After food ingestion, glucose levels in the blood rise. In response to high glucose levels, a hormone – insulin is released from pancreas. Insulin forces cells to take up glucose and this decreases glucose level in the blood. Blood glucose levels remain high if the body does not produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or if the cells are resistant to insulin effects (type 2 diabetes).
When the test is ordered?
The glucose tolerance test is done to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes. It is also ordered to check for gestational diabetes.
How this test is performed?
First, a sample of blood is taken to measure fasting glucose levels. Then the patient is asked to drink a liquid containing a certain amount of glucose (usually 75 grams). The blood sample is taken again 2 hours after drinking the solution.
How to prepare for the test
Fasting is required for at least 8 hours before the test. Some medications may affect the test results. It is essential to first consult the doctor and get detailed instructions about the preparation needed.
Interpretation of results
The test results must be interpreted by a doctor.
Normally, after taking glucose, its level rises and this stimulates releasing of insulin. As a result, glucose levels return to norm. If this does not happen and glucose levels remain high after 2 hours, it means that glucose tolerance is impaired. This may be due to insufficient amount of insulin or resistance to its effects.
The article was prepared by T.Kachlishvili and T.Khutsishvili.
Under the supervision of Tea Khutsishvili, students successfully completed Vistamedi’s short training course in “Laboratory Medicine”.
Vitamin B12, also called Cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin, which belongs to the B vitamin family. Human body doesn’t produce it, animal products are the best food sources of vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is essential for a healthy nervous system and DNA synthesis. It also participates in the formation of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body.
In order to provide vitamin B12 to the cells:
- One must eat plenty of foods that contain vitamin B12, such as meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.
- The body must absorb enough vitamin B12. A special protein, called intrinsic factor is needed for this. It is released by the cells in the stomach.
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency usually do not appear immediately. The reason for this is that most people have several years worth of vitamin B12 stored in the liver.
Initial symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can include: fatigue, anemia, dizziness, hearing problems, lack of appetite and memory loss.
Untreated vitamin B12 deficiency may include: weight loss, an enlarged spleen and liver, hallucinations, mood changes, depression, irritability, damage to the optic nerve.
Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency:
- Many people over age 50, lose the ability to absorb vitamin B12 from foods, because their diets are not healthy, or because they have less stomach acid
- Vegans and vegetarians who do not eat dairy products or eggs, are deficient in vitamin, because vitamin B12 is found only in animal products
- People with digestive disorders, such as celiac disease or Crohn’s disease and people who have had gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight loss surgery, lose the ability to absorb vitamin B12
- Lack of intrinsic factor causes Pernicious anemia, a type of vitamin B12 anemia that occurs when stomach cells are not able to make intrinsic factor. Without intrinsic factor, the body cannot absorb vitamin B12
- Heavy alcohol consumption
- Drugs that interfere with absorption of B12
- People with thyroid dysfunction may suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency. According to a study there is B12 deficiency in 40% of primary hypothyroid patients.
Vitamin B12 deficiency and heart disease
Vitamins B12, B9 and B6 work together to control blood levels of amino acid homocysteine and convert into methionine. During B12 deficiency homocysteine level increases, because these reactions cannot take place. As studies suggest, people with high levels of amino acid homocysteine are almost two times more likely to develop coronary artery disease and 2.5 times more likely to have stroke than those with normal levels.
The article was prepared by Tinatin Kachlishvili.